MAS 965 (H) Special Topics in Media Technology Cooperative Machines
|This course examines the issues, principles, and challenges toward building machines that cooperate with humans and with other machines. Philosophical, scientific, and theoretical insights into this subject will be covered, as well as how these ideas are manifest in both natural and artificial systems (e.g. software agents and robots). Course grade will be based on weekly student assignments and presentations, participation in lively class discussion, and a final term project.
Professor Cynthia Breazealcynthiab@media.mit.edu
H-Level Credit (0-12-0)
NE18-5th Floor, room 551
W 2-4pm, E15-335
Course email list
Readings can be downloaded from the course website, below.
Student presentation of readings
Student presentations should include summary of work, critique, and connections to other relevant literature. The presenter is expected to include material from papers outside of those assigned by the class reading list, such as looking up key papers from the cited references.
ReadingsWeek 0: Introduction to course
Sept 10: Philosophy
B. Malle & J. Knobe (2001), "The Distinction between Desire and Intention: A Folk-Conceptual Analysis." In Malle, Moses and Baldwin (eds.) Intention and Intentionality. MIT Press. Chapter 2.
M. Bratman (1990), "What is intention?" In Cohen, Morgan and Pollack (eds.) Intentions in Communication. MIT Press. Chapter 2.
D. Dennett (1987), "Three kinds of intentional psychology." In The Intentional Stance. MIT Press. Chapter 3.
Sept 17: Development of Theory of Mind
Meltzoff and J. Decety (2003) "What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapproachment between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 358. pp 491500.
S. Baron Cohen (1991), "Precursers to a Theory of Mind: Understanding Attention in Others." In A. Whiten (ed) Natural Theories of Mind. Blackwell. Chapter 16.
H. Wellman (1991), "From Desires to Beliefs: Acquisition of a Theory of Mind." In A. Whiten (ed.) Natural Theories of Mind. Blackwell. Chapter 2.
Sept 24: Models of Theory of Mind
A. Gopnick & H. Wellman (1992), "Why the Child's Theory of Mind Really Is a Theory." Mind and Language 7(1-2), pp 145-171
S. Carey and E. Spelke (1996). "Science and Knoweldge." Philosophy of Science, 63, pp. 515-533.
R. Gordon (1986), "Folk Psychology as Simulation." Mind and Language, 3(2), pp. 158-171.
S. Nichols, S. Stich, A. Leslie and D. Klein (1996), "Variations of off-line simulation." In Carreuthers and Smith (eds.) Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 4.
Oct 1: Reading behavior, reading minds: Primates
A. Whiten (1996), "When does smart behavior-reading become mind-reading," In P. Carruthers & P. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theory of Mind. Cambridge University Press, Chapter 17.
D. Povinelli (1996), "Chimpanzee theory of mind? The long road to strong inference." In P. Carruthers and P. Smith (eds.) Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 18.
G. Butterworth (1994), "Theory of Mind and the Facts of Embodiment," In C. Lewis and P. Mitchell (eds.), Children's Early Understanding of Mind. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Chapter 6.
Oct 8: Reading behavior, reading minds: Children
A. Woodward, J. Sommerville and J. Guajardo (2001), "How infants make sense of intentional action." In Malle, Moses, and Baldwin (eds.) Intention and Intentionality. MIT Press. Chaper 7.
B. Gleissner, A. Meltzoff, H. Bekkering (2000), "Children's coding of human action: cognitive factors influencing imitation in 3 year olds." Developmental Science 3(4), pp. 405-414.
D. Baldwin & J. Baird (2001). Discerning Intensions in Dynamic Human Action. Trends in Cognitive Science 5(4), pp. 171-178.
D. Povinelli (2001). On the Possibility of Detecting Intentions Prior to Understanding Them. In B. Malle, L. Moses & d. Baldwin (Eds.), Intention and Intentionality (pp 225-248). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
T. Schultz (1996), "From Agency to Intention: A Rule-Based, Computational Approach," In P. Carruthers and P. Smith (eds.) Theories of Theory of Mind. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 6.
J. Baird & D. Baldwin (2001). Making Sense of Human Behavior: Acting Parsing and Intentional Inference. In B. Malle, L. Moses & D. Baldwin (Eds.), Intention and Intentionality (pp 193-206). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Oct 15: Toward Machines with ToM
M. Mataric (2000). "Getting Humanoids to Move and Imitate". In IEEE Intelligent Systems:18-24, Jul 2000.
B. Scassellati (2000). "Foundations of Theory of Mind for a Humanoid Robot," PhD Thesis, MIT Dept EECS. Cambridge, MA. Selected chapters: 3, 7, 9,10, 11.
C. Breazeal, D. Bushbaum, J. Gray, B. Blumberg (2004). "Learning from and about others: towards using imitation to bootstrap the social competence of robots." In review Artificial Life.
B. Scassellati (2000). " Theory of Mind for a Humanoid Robot," Proceedings of Humanoids 2000, Cambridge, MA.
Oct 22: Joint Intention and Action
B. Gross (1996). "Collaborative Systems: the1994 AAAI Presidential Address," AI Magazine, 17(2), pp. 67-85.
M. Bratman (1992). "Shared Cooperative Activity," The Philosophical Review, 101(2) pp. 327-341.
J. Searle (1990). "Collective Intentions and Actions," In Cohen, Morgan and Pollack (eds.) Intentions in communication. MIT Press, Chapter 19.
Oct 29: Teamwork
P. Cohen (1991). "Teamwork," Nous 25, pp 487-512.
P. Cohen & H. Levesque (1990),"Persistence, Intention, and Commitment," In Cohen, Morgan and Pollack (eds.) Intentions in communication. MIT Press, Chapter 3.
H. Levesque, P. Cohen, J. Nunes (1994), "On Acting Together," In Proceedings of the Eighth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-90), pp. 94--99, Boston, MA, 1990.
D. Sullivan, A. Glass, B. Grosz, and S. Kraus (1999), "Intention reconciliation in the context of teamwork: an initial empirical investigation." In Klusch, Shehory, Weiss (eds) Cooperative Information Agents III, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Vol 1652. Springer-verlag. Pp 149-162.
Nov 5: Robot Teams
H. Jones & P. Hinds (2002), "Extreme Work Teams: using SWAT teams as a model for coordinating distributed robots". In Proceedings of CSCW 2002.
P. Stone & M. Veloso (1999), "Task Decomposition, Dynamic Role Assignment, and Low-Bandwidth Communication for Real-Time Strategic Teamwork." Artificial Intelligence, 110(2), pp 241-273.
P. Stone & M. Veloso (1996), "Towards collaborative and adversarial learning: a case study in robotic soccer." Proceedings of IJHCS.
M. Veloso, P. Stone & M. Bowling (1998) "Anticipation: A Key for Collaboration in a Team of Agents." In Proceedings of the third international conference on autonomous agents.
Nov 12: Collaborative Discourse Theory
D. Litman & J. Allen (1990) "Discourse processing and commonsense plans." In Cohen, Morgan, and Pollack (eds.) Intentions in Communication. MIT Press. Chatper 17.
B. Grosz & C. Sider (1990). "Plans for Discourse." In Cohen, Morgan, Pollack (eds) Intentions in Communication. MIT Press. Chapter 20.
C. Rich, C. Sidner and N. Lesh (2001). "Collagen: Applying Collaborative Discourse Theory to Human-Computer Interaction." AI Magazine. Winter 2001. pp 15-25
B. Grosz and C. Sidner (1986). "Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse", Computational Linguistics, 12(3), pp 175202.
M. Pollack (1990), "Plans as Complex Mental Attitudes," In Cohen, Morgan and Pollack (eds.) Intentions in communication. MIT Press, Chapter 5.
K. Lochbaum (1998). "A collaborative planning model for intentional structure." Computational Linguistics 4(24) pp.525-571.
Lesh, N., Rich, C., Sidner, C.L. (1999) "Using plan recognition in human-computer collaboration." In Proceedings of the International Conference on User Modelling (UM-99),
Nov 19: Task-oriented Dialogs
J. Rickel and L. Johnson (2000). "Task-Oriented Collaboration with Embodied Agents in Virtual Worlds," In J. Cassell, J. Sullivan, S. Prevost and E. Churchill (eds) Embodied Conversational Agents, MIT Press. Chapter 4, pp. 95-122.
P. Cohen, H. Levesque, J. Nunes, and S. Oviatt (1990). "Task-Oriented Dialogue as a Consequence of Joint Activity." Proceedings of PRICAI-90. Pp. 203-208.
H. Clark and D. Wilkes-Gibbs (2000) "Referring as a Collaborative Process," In Cohen, Morgan and Pollack (eds.) Intentions in Communication. MIT Press, Chapter 23.
J. Cassell (2000). "Nudge Nudge Wink Wink: Elements of Face-to-Face Conversation for Embodied Conversational Agents," In J. Cassell, J. Sullivan, S. Prevost and E. Churchill (eds) Embodied Conversational Agents, MIT Press. Chapter 1, pp. 1-28.
H. Grice (1975). "Logic and conversation," In P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds.) Syntax & Semantics: Speech Acts (Volume 3), Academic Press, NY. pp. 41-58.
S. Duncan (1973). "On the structure of speaker-auditor interaction during speaking turns," Lang. Soc. 2, pp. 160-180.
N. Chovil (1992). "Discourse-oriented facial displays in conversation," Research on Language and Social Interaction 25, pp. 163-194.
M. Argyle, R. Ingham, F. Alkema and M. McCallin (1973). "The Different Functions of Gaze." Semiotica.
E. McClave (2000). "Linguistic functions of head movements in the context of speech," Journal of Pragmatics 32, pp. 855-878.
I. Smith, P. Cohen, J. Bradshaw, M. Greaves adn H. Holmback (1990). "Designing conversation policies using joint intention theory," In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (ICMAS98), 1998.
Nov 26: Collaborative Learning
M. Nicolescu and M. Mataric (2003). "Natural Methods for Robot Task Learning: Instructive Demonstrations, Generalization and Practice." Proceedings of AAMAS 2003. Melbourne, Australia.
M. Tan (1997). "Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: Independent vs. Cooperative Agents." In M. Hunhs and M. Singh (eds.) Readings in Agents . Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA. pp. 487-494.
Dec 3: Systems: Human machine collaboration
B. Hayes Roth & L. Brownston (1994). "Multi-Agent Collaboration in Directed Improvisation." Stanford University Technical Report KSL-94-61. October, 1994.
J. Rickel, N. Lesh, C. Rich, C. Sidner, and A. Gertner (2002), "Collaborative Discourse Theory as a Foundation for Tutorial Dialog." In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Springer Verlag, pp 512-551.
J. Allen et. al. (1994). "The TRAINS Project: a case study in building a conversational planning agent," Technical Note 94-3, University of Rochester, Computer Science Department.
N. Lesh, C. Rich, and C. Sidner (2001), "Collaborating with focused and unfocused users under imperfect communication." In Proceedings of the international conference on User Modelling. Springer Verlag, pp. 6473.
E. Churchill, L. Cook, P. Hodgson, S. Prevost adn J. Sullivan (2000). "May I help you?: Designing Embodied Conversational Agent Allies," In J. Cassell, J. Sullivan, S. Prevost and E. Churchill (eds) Embodied Conversational Agents, MIT Press. Chapter 3, pp. 64-94.Dec 10: Student presentations of term projects