Near-Invariant Blur for Depth and 2D Motion via Time-Varying Light Field Analysis

Yosuke Bando1,2            Henry Holtzman2            Ramesh Raskar2
1TOSHIBA Corporation            2MIT Media Lab

Recently, several camera designs have been proposed for either making defocus blur invariant to scene depth or making motion blur invariant to object motion. The benefit of such invariant capture is that no depth or motion estimation is required to remove the resultant spatially uniform blur. So far, the techniques have been studied separately for defocus and motion blur, and object motion has been assumed to be 1D (e.g., horizontal). This paper explores a more general capture method that makes both defocus blur and motion blur nearly invariant to scene depth and in-plane 2D object motion. We formulate the problem as capturing a time-varying light field through a time-varying light field modulator at the lens aperture, and perform 5D (4D light field + 1D time) analysis of all the existing computational cameras for defocus/motion-only deblurring and their hybrids. This leads to a surprising conclusion that focus sweep, previously known as a depth-invariant capture method that moves the plane of focus through a range of scene depth during exposure, is near-optimal both in terms of depth and 2D motion-invariance and in terms of high frequency preservation for certain combinations of depth and motion ranges. Using our prototype camera, we demonstrate joint defocus and motion deblurring for moving scenes with depth variation.

Keywords: extended depth of field, defocus and motion deblurring, depth and motion-invariant photography