(2 years and 7 months old)

Ishii met a highly successful PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) called the "abacus" when he was 2 years old. This simple abacus-PDA was not merely a computational device, but also a musical instrument, imaginary toy train, and a back scratcher. He was captivated by the sound and tactile interaction with this simple artifact. When his mother kept household accounts, he was aware of her activities by the sound of her abacus, knowing he could not ask for her to play with him while her abacus made its music. We strongly believe this abacus is suggesting to us a direction for the next generation of HCI.

(Ishii and Ullmer 1997, Tangible Bits, CHI '97)

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